female apostles in the bible

The original 12 disciples, along with Paul, were a special group. While these scholars are correct about Latin terms of endearment being lengthened, they somehow fail to notice that Rom 16:7 is after all in Greek and, if it is indeed a term of endearment or nickname that has come from Latin into Greek, it would follow the latter’s rules, not the former’s. 2:1-15. Thus, I see the later writers collectively as one witness. Matt 10:2; Mar 3:14; Luke 6:13; Acts 1:26; 2:42; 4:33; 6:6; 15:2; 1 Cor 9:5; 1 Pet 1:1; 2 Pet 1:1; Rev 21:14, etc.

But it appears one sacrifice from the true story of Jesus has endured since. is the real reason that Paul said that a woman should be silent at church and

44. 65 Although there is hardly enough space within the limitations of this paper to conduct an exhaustive survey, an examination of those instances where persons are referred to instead of places greatly reduces the sample and renders it more manageable. An honourable exception – one of very few – to this unexamined consensus was Pope Gregory the Great, writing soon after launching his mission to England under the monk Augustine in 597. “But Constantine’s problem was that his empire was fragmenting and mired in civil wars and he needed a single faith to unite it.”. from “What Moulton, J. H., ed. US Election 2020: World stunned by Biden’s entrance. Although there are all these uncertainties, the issue of Junia as a female apostle teaches us that paying attention to the details in the Bible matters.

A. Fitzmyer, Romans (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1993) 738. See Brooten, 141. until they got home to ask their husbands questions. The elasticity inherent in the NT uses demand that its meaning in a given usage must be adduced from context. Liefeld, W. L. “A Plural Ministry View: Your Sons and Your Daughters Shall Prophesy.” In Women in Ministry: Four Views. In the latter category was a man who nevertheless spent a lot of time emphasising that he was an apostle of Jesus, and indeed went on to make something of a splash in Christian history: Paul of Tarsus. Unfortunately, morphology is of no help to us here. Another good book is “WHAT Romans; Priscilla – wife of Aquila, and missionary partner to Paul the Apostle. 77 See “On the Martyrdom of S. Polycarp,” in The Apostolic Fathers, ed. can still be saved even if they have children.

A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, a move critical to the Christian church and its future popularity. reference to them both being men does not appear in the I concur with Piper and Grudem, who prefer Epiphanius’ understanding over Chrysostom’s since the former seems to know certain historical details about Junias, whereas the latter seems to be merely commenting upon the text and mentions no specifics at all. khar'‑ece, Greek 5485; from Greek 5463 (chairo); especially the divine influence Cervin, R. S. “A Note Regarding the Name ‘Junia(s)’ in Romans 16:7.” NTS 40 (1994) 464-70. See P. Lampe, Die stadtromischen Christen in den ersten beiden Jahrhunderten, WUNT (Tubingen, J.C.B. Cervin, 464, n. 2, adds that his search failed to turn up any masculine name that ended in –ias. Although it is not clear to what extent this should be determinative for the issue at hand, Fitzmyer mentions that all accented manuscripts from the ninth century bear the masculine accent; not one bears the feminine. and Greek 5316 (phaino); appearing “[It refers to] male and female pairs of envoys sent out by Jesus, not just 12 men, but 12 women disciples working together by pairs,” Taylor says. tap‑i‑nos', Greek 5011; of uncertain derivative; I know that it's doubly hard because you've They also say that Joanna fled Herod’s court and financed the disciples’ spreading of the word and healing. Indeed, how great is the wisdom of this woman that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle.40, It is important to recognize, however, that Chrysostom did not take Junia to be an authoritative apostle, but rather as an apostle in a secondary sense, as one commissioned by the church for a certain task (cf. Early church fathers, even those who had a bias against women in leadership, understood "Junia" to be a female apostle in the early church. “The flames of the holy spirit would come out of the gospels and inspire the bishops in their preaching. What are we to make of Paul’s usage here? Black, M. Romans. Women, just as much as men, are called to minister to others, to demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22–23), and to proclaim the gospel to the lost (Matthew 28:18–20; Acts 1:8; 1 … Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus's closest disciples. Most striking, Paul's greeting list in his letter to the Romans includes Junia, a female "apostle", so described alongside another "apostle" with a male name. 4 I call this reference obscure for two reasons: (1) because the gender is not plain from the name itself, but must be determined by other factors; and (2) because this individual has managed to escape the notice of many serious Bible students. Vol. Second, even though many of the 42 occurrences of this construction in Romans are instrumental uses of the dative (e.g., 1:9, 10, 27; 3:4; 5:9, 10; 10:9 [x2]; 13:9; 15:30), only two refer to persons rather than things (2:24; 16:7). 31 See Grenz, 94-95. 27 Brooten, 142, refers to this as the “short form hypothesis,” which was in her eyes invented to make the Junias interpretation more plausible. Female Prophets, Disciples, Ministers & Apostles Mentioned in the Bible There were many women who exhibited leadership in both the Old and New Testaments: Exodus 15:20: Miriam , the sister of Aaron was a prophetess and one of the triad of leaders of Israel during the Exodus from Egypt. London: Oxford University Press, 1958. New York: Paulist, 1977, 141-44. So in essence, Waco, Tex.

I think this highly unlikely, suggesting that Paul is using apostolos in a non-technical sense here. If the general synod refuses to back female bishops, it will be taking the wrong lessons from history, Detail of Penitent Magdalene by Antonio Canova. 3 The original RSV translation was, “Greet Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners; they are men of note among the apostles, and they were in Christ before me” (emphasis mine). While the construction is regularly used to denote an instrument, it normally does so only with impersonal things (e.g. But as the two Bible experts expound in their update of the “greatest story ever told”, the truth is very different. theh'‑os, Greek 2316; of uncertain affinity; a. antitassomai,

That he did not lends support to the reading “among” as opposed to “by” or “in the eyes of” in Rom 16:7. a commissioner of Christ ["apostle"] Junius was a common family name in the Roman world.36 Brutus, mentioned above, came from a family by that name.

Apostle simply means messenger and there was and is quite a lot else to say about Jesus than announcing the end of the world. The Greek word apostolos simply means “messenger” or “sent one”—someone sent out for a specific task, akin to our concept of a missionary. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1897.

It’s very important to the Jesus movement. 20 So also Piper and Grudem, 79-80. hoop‑ot‑as'‑so, Greek 5293; from Greek 5259 (hupo) and Greek Zerwick, M. Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples. (2) They are outstanding among the The authors are Richard and Catherine

in modest apparel. There is no good reason to suppose that first- and second-century Christians made such a distinction. For instance, Tucker asserts with a touch of humor that it was not until “around the fourteenth century that Junia seems to have gotten a sex change,” implying that no one prior to that time held Iounian to be a man.44 Tucker takes most of her material on this issue from Spencer’s book, however, and does not substantiate her claim with any citations from primary sources.45 Grenz tentatively mentions that biblical commentators up until about 1200 were in large agreement that Junia was a woman, and according to him, Origen (c. 185-254) assumed that Iounian referred to a woman.46 Grenz provides no quote from Origen, however, but merely a citation. In co‑laborer, was Diana of the Ephesians. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the claim that Rom 16:7 refers to an authoritative female apostle named Junia. His formal Latin name was Silvanus, (cf. even allowed to sit in the same room with the men. Schreiner asks, “Had the culture changed so dramatically in the few years since Jesus’ ministry that now such appointments were feasible?”. An examination of the construction en + article + dative as used throughout the epistle to the Romans lends considerable support to the locative understanding adopted by most scholars, and for at least two reasons. Kostenberger, A. J., T. R. Schreiner, and H. S. Baldwin, eds. . 52 See Cervin, 466, n. 13, although he discounts the testimony of all three because of their late dates. original Greek text. Yet, at least two factors must be taken into consideration before adopting this conclusion. from an obsolete diako (to run on errands; compare Greek 1377 (dioko)); an Because her sister Martha is one of the Seven Women Apostles called by Christ and because they are mentioned together four times in the New Testament, this makes it more likely that she is the 7th. women, not being used to this, were talking out loud and asking their husbands Even if we were to take Rom 2:24 instrumentally to denote human agency, it still would not apply perfectly to Rom 16:7, where an adjective is used instead of a verb. did'‑o‑mee, Greek 1325; a prolonged form of a primary  verb (which is used as an alternative in of mind, humility (of mind), loneliness (of mind). oppose :‑

Spencer, A. Many patristic exegetes understood the second person mentioned in Rom 16:7 to be the wife of Andronicus, such as: Ambrosiaster (c. 339-97); Jerome (c. 342-420); John Chrysostom (c. 347- 407); Jerome; Theodoret of Cyrrhus (c.393-458); Ps.-Primasius (c. 6th cent. Yet, if this is so, and Paul is claiming that Andronicus and Iounian stood out among the apostles — even though we never hear of them again in Scripture — we have to wonder what Paul means by apostolos here. They were not 1:1; 1 Pet. (Hence the part where Paul says women should dress 45 According to Brooten, who does at least substantiate her claims with some references to primary sources, if not the actual quotes, Giles of Rome (c. 1247-1316) was the first to break with the patristic tradition and to interpret the pair as two men. Very often those who oppose opening up the episcopate to another 50% of the human race treat "apostolic succession" as a knockdown argument on their side.


L. and A. Swidler. The term apostolos was used in classical Greek to denote a ship ready for departure. CBMW Executive Office Apostle to the Apostles: The Women Disciples of Jesus. khar'‑ece, Greek 5485; from Greek 5463 (chairo); graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or

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